Archive for garden pests

Wasp Stings – A Significant Medical Risk

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Wasp Stings – A Significant Medical Risk

By George Giltner, Adv. Master Gardener

The social wasps, paper wasps, yellow jackets, hornets, red wasps, etc., in the U.S. account for more fatalities than any other venomous animal (1). Approximately 0.5 to 4.0% is prone to “immediate hypersensitivity reactions” including life-threatening anaphylaxis. Most deaths occur within a few minutes to hours from the initial sting. Constricting of airways and throat swelling cause respiratory failure or cardiovascular collapse occurs due to a rapid drop in blood pressure (2). Therefore these stings can be quite serious.

The hot days of summer bring on numerous encounters with wasps, usually from 10 am until 6 pm. Recently, I was venturing up a ladder to the second story of my barn while a flurry of paper wasps suddenly zipped around. Needless to say, the climb became a rapid descent, then a run. One nest was on the second ladder step, and the other was at the 8-foot level. I was lucky to avoid a sting as the pheromones signal other wasps that they should also participate. Wasps are not like bees with a barbed stinger that can only be used once. Wasps have a smooth stinger that can be injected multiple times.

Wasp’s sting venom is a complex mixture of multiple compounds including proteins, peptides, enzymes and other molecules. However we can examine some of the major components to understand the medical effect of a sting (3):

  1. Acetylcholine – increases stimulation of pain nerves. Very high in hornet stings.
  2. Noradrenaline – causes constriction of blood vessels resulting in high blood pressure.
  3. Histamine – causes pain and itching. Chemical released during an allergic response.
  4. Wasp kinin – large portion of wasp venom, but it has not been understood completely.
  5. Phospholipase A – destroys cells and is a strong allergen.
  6. Phospholipase B – like A, but also used to paralyze prey.
  7. Hyaluronidase – breaks down cell walls and allows penetration of venom into tissue.
  8. Serotonin – causes irritation and pain
  9. Alarm pheromones – causes same species to attack nearby threats

The best treatment of a sting is the application of antihistamine creams, which reduces further inflammation (3). Benadryl (diphenhydramine) has proven to aid itching and rash (1). Ice soothes pain issues and reduces swelling. Wash the sting site. Continue to observe and be prepared to treat the site for bacterial infections for days afterward.

Most home remedies do not work. However it is correct that bee venom has acidic components, and wasp stings have alkaline components, but the venom quickly penetrates tissue. Therefore adding a topical treatment of alkaline (like baking soda) or acidic (like vinegar) will not be helpful. A “ chaw of tobacco” and other folk cures are also not effective. If someone is stung, it is wise to move the person into a cool environment with observers. If any allergic symptoms arise, or if the person is known to have previous allergic responses to stings, get immediate medical attention (1).

 

 

  1. www.emedicine.medscape.com
  2. www.extension.entm.purdue.edu/publichealth/insects/stinging
  3. www.compoundchem.com/chemical-composition-of-insect-Venoms.
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Alternatives to Toxic Insecticides

Alternatives to Toxic Insecticides

By George Giltner, Adv. Master Gardener, MS Biology

A third study now validates results of earlier research of associations between autism and prenatal exposure to agriculture chemicals (www.ehp.niehs.nih.gov/1307044/).  “Women who are pregnant should take care to avoid contact with agricultural chemicals whenever possible” says author, Janie F. Shelton who is now a consultant with the U.N.

Three groups of common pesticides were studied that included organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, acephate, diazinon, and others), pyrethroids (esfenvalerate, lambda-cypermethrin, taufluvalinate, and others), and carbamates (methomyl, carbaryl, and others). The organophosphates were associated with an elevated risk of autism spectrum disorder, especially chlorpyrifos applications in the second trimester. Pyrethroids had a moderate association with autism spectrum disorder immediately prior to conception and in the third trimester. Carbamates were associated with developmental delays.

The present rate of autism is now at 1:68 births according to estimates from the CDC.  Also about 1 in 6 children in the United States had a developmental disability in 2006-2008. In the birth year of 1992, the prevalence of Autism Spectrum Disorder was 1 in 150, which has steadily increased to 1 in 68 in the 2002 birth year.

Therefore as gardeners, we should always use the least toxic chemicals, read labels, follow all safety precautions, and keep up with the latest research concerning pest control.

The good news is that more and more information is available on less toxic pesticides.  Clemson Cooperative Extension has an outstanding article on “Less Toxic Insecticides” which conscientious gardeners should print out (www.clemson.edu/extension/hgic).  “Most essential oils used as pesticides work by disrupting an insect neurotransmitter that is not present in people, pets, or other vertebrates.” The EPA no longer requires approval for use as pesticides due to minimum risk to uses of these essential oils (cedar, cinnamon, citronella, citrus, clove, garlic, mints, rosemary and others).

Microbial insecticides include Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis) for caterpillar control.  Milky Spore (Bacillus papillae and lentimorbus) is used against June bug larvae – grub worms. Spinosad, Saccharopolyspora spinosa is a treatment for fire ants, caterpillars, thrips, whiteflies, aphids, and even borers of fruit trees. Beneficial nematodes are the good nematodes that control clearwing borers, cutworms, sod webworms, mole crickets, and grub worms.  However nematodes are difficult to get started due to humidity, moisture, shipping, and temperature issues.

Bacillus subtilis and pumilus combat downy and powdery mildews, rust, bacterial spot, blight, botrytis and multiple other mildews on veggies, fruits, ornamentals, trees, and shrubs.

Minerals like boric acid acts as a stomach poison which causes the insects to die from starvation.  Diatomaceous Earth controls slugs, millipedes, ants, cockroaches, and soft-bodied insects like aphids. However use the “natural grade”, not the swimming pool filtering-agent that poses an inhalation hazard.  Sodium Fluoaluminate has sharp edges which punctures insect (caterpillars, sawflies, beetles, etc.) gut cells from consuming leafy material, however beneficial insects are not affected since they are not leaf eaters.  Iron phosphate is used as an organic slug and snail bate.  It is not poisonous to cats and dogs.

“Organic Farm and Garden” 2013, Vol.1, 2nd Ed., lists Biological Control Options which incorporates predator and prey functions in every ecosystem.  Plant nectar sources attract beneficial insects, and allow them to lay eggs near this food source.  Plant small flower favorites like dill, parsley, fennel oregano, cilantro, and thyme.  Also include annuals like sunflowers, cosmos, amaranth, alyssum and statice.  Perennials like yarrow, tansy, daises and angelica can be inter-planted within your garden.  Your beautiful garden will buzz with beneficial insects, and will have an ecological balance of predator and prey bugs.

“Louisiana Gardener”, Feb. 2015, has a super article, “What’s Bugging You?” by Cindy Shapton.  She puts emphasis on learning good bugs and bad bugs. Numerous recipes for repellants to easy to make sticky-traps are highlighted.

“The Naturally Bug-free Garden”, 2012, by Anna Hess is now available at Amazon.  It focuses on the worst garden pests that we have here and in Texas, and gives organic control measures.  Good bugs and good animals are reviewed and used to make your garden a living balance of natural defenses.  Resistant varieties, row covers, companion planting, and plant nutrition are tools for helping plants resist insects.  This is a good book to assist the beginner and young gardeners in learning about organic gardening.  It is a treasure!

So this year, learn, read, and experiment with organic chemical-free gardening to avoid potentially dangerous chemicals that are used in commercial agriculture.

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Beauregard Master Gardener Demonstration Gardens Closing

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 Beauregard Master Gardener Demonstration Gardens Closing

by Ms. Emily Shirley, President, Beauregard Parish Master Gardeners

I almost started this paragraph with “On a sad note…” but I corrected myself – it is not on a sad note, it is on a note of appreciation and thankfulness. There was so much that was accomplished, good times, sharing, and lots of learning that too place in the Demo Gardens.  Last month the Beauregard Master Gardeners made the decision to close the Demonstration Gardens that have been in existence for approximately five years.  This was a wonderful and successful project and now we are ready to move on to other projects.

There are so many of you to thank and recognize for the work that you did, as well as the time, money, and energy you spent to make this project so successful, I can’t begin to name everyone.  We have money in our account at this time because you so willing to spend your own personal money to pay for things in the gardens. I want you to know that that has not gone unnoticed.  There are a few that spent a considerable amount of time and personal money and I do want to publically acknowledge them.

George and Merlyn Giltner spent so much in terms of money and time that I cannot begin to list all the things they did or all the things they paid for.  There were times when it was so hot and some days when it was so wet and ugly, but you could pass by the gardens and you would see George and Merlyn out there working.  On those hot days when things needed to be watered every day, we could always know that things were being taken care of because George and Merlyn would be there to water things.

The same goes for John Markham.  I even joked one time that I really thought John was living the potting shed in the Demo Gardens and had not informed any of us.  He was there almost every day working and taking care of things.  Not only did John oversee the installation of the irrigation system, I never worried about the system in the winter time because I knew John would take care of it.  The same for the raised beds.  John was always around to plant, fertilize, water and harvest the vegetables.  John and Dale Vincent raised some beautiful corn that we were able to sell at the Farmer’s Market and made money for future projects.

Jimmy Cooley installed an awesome Muscadine orchard and showed us all how it is done and what materials to use.  It was a wonderful teaching project and we so appreciate all the time, money and energy that went into that project.

Chris Krygowski came along just as we were all talking about a Children’s Garden.  She not only volunteered to help with this project, she agreed to head up this project and made it into something the rest of only dreamed of.  We all have commented on the energy Chris seemed to always have and the number of hours she spent making that area into what it is.

Dana Whittington took over an area of the garden that was difficult to garden for a number of reasons, but she certainly showed us that it can be done — if you have a difficult area you can always garden in containers.  In addition to the onions, garlic in the ground, she demonstrated how to grow purple potatoes and carrots in containers.  I harvested some of her onions and carrots for a wonderful soup one day last year.  Fresh from the ground is always good!

Allen Wells demonstrated how to grow vertically with his “Arbor Garden”.  His use of cow-pen panels is a unique way to have things growing overhead while other plants in-ground below.

And who can forget John Hendrix’s okra – we thought he had some type “Jack-And-The-Beanstalk” type okra out there.  And he harvested okra right into the fall.

Shirley Corda spent a considerable amount of time helping us get our Five-Year-Plan on paper to be presented to the Fair Board.

Keith Hawkins has been our MG Coordinator from the beginning and we appreciate what he has done for this program.  And to ALL the others not mentioned above, THANK YOU for all your contributions of time, money and sweat equity.  A job well done!

Ms. Emily Shirley is a Master Gardener in Beauregard Parish. She also publishes the BEAUREGARD MASTER GARDENER NEWSLETTER.

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Puss Caterpillars (Megalopyge opercularis) – Beware!

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Puss Caterpillars(Megalopyge opercularis) – Beware!

By George Giltner, Adv. Master Gardener

puss caterpillar 1

Puss caterpillar, 1 to 1 1/4 inches. Specimen brought in by Doyle Unruh, photo by George Giltner

“Oh! What a cute little furry bug”, then “Ouch, the SOB stung me worse that a bald faced hornet!”  Welcome to the poison spines of the Puss Caterpillar, Italian asp, Spanish perrito, wooly slug, or the numerous unprintable common names given to this caterpillar.  Note: all larval developmental stages have hollow spines with base venom glands, but the above last instar delivers the worst stings.

For some people this furry southern flannel moth larvae’s sting is serious enough for a medical visit.  Beside the painful sting location, additional symptoms like headache, fever, nausea, vomiting, tachycardia, low blood pressure, and seizures may occur.  Rarely, convulsions, chest pain, numbness, muscle spasms, and abdominal pain are the results of the protein toxin from the multiple spines along the dorsal side of this caterpillar.

PC 2

Another view of the puss caterpillar. photo: George Giltner

If you are a victim, remedies first include removal of the broken spines. No! Do not try to scrape the spines out, as some will inevitably be driven deeper in the skin.  Lightly apply Scotch tape or better, clear Gorilla tape to remove the broken spine tips from the skin.  Then recommendations include ice packs, oral antihistamines, hydrocortisone creams or baking soda to the sting site.  Medical treatment may include systemic corticosteroids and intravenous calcium gluconate.

Outbreaks have historically occurred. Even schools have been temporarily closed as cycles peaked.  However, most years, varieties of natural predators keep populations of the puss caterpillar in check.  Among these are at least two types of ichneumonid wasps, and four species of tachinid flies. Applications of “Bt” to the affected plant’s leaves are effective when populations become noticeable.

As one of the most venomous caterpillars of the United States, and as an endemic southern leaf-feeder of oaks, elms, citrus, and roses – encounters with children are common, especially in the Fall.  They are not only found on the leaves of trees and bushes.  They may be spotted crawling on objects in the vicinity including toys, walls, buckets, etc.  Parents should ensure that children are educated about poisonous caterpillars along with spiders, wasps, ants, centipedes, and other stinging critters.  Puss Caterpillars resemble a “Persian cat” bug to young children.  However after they are stung, parents have to endure at least a week of painful cries from their children.

References: www.webmd.com, entnemdept.ufl.edu/Creatures, www.simple-remedies.com, www.wn.com, and en.wikipedia.org

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Leafcutter Bees – Holes in Roses

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Leafcutter Bees – Holes in Roses

By George Giltner, Advanced Master Gardener

leaf cutting bee 1

A leaf cutter bee in action on a rose. Photo: itsnature.org

The rose enthusiast may recognize nearly circular, up to ¾ inch holes in rose leaves and petals that are cut at first glance, by what appears to be a fly.  The bug may also be observed going into pruned, thick rose piths.  Wait! Put down the bug spray.  This may be the leafcutter bee, a solitary beneficial bee.

leaf cutting bee 2

The leaf cutting bee has large jaws or mandibles. Photo: D. Almquist and David Serrano

Leafcutter bees can be identified by their stout, black bodies with light bands on the abdomen.  Pollen is not transported on the legs like typical honey bees. Instead the underside of the abdomen has thick, yellow hairs (scopa) for carrying pollen. The size is varies from 1/5 inch to one inch depending on which of the 60+ species is viewed.  Also note that flies have two wings, but bees have four.

The value of these bees is as with honey bees, they are important pollinators of fruits (blueberries, etc.), vegetables (onions, carrots, etc.), and many wildflowers.  Alfalfa and blueberry crops are commercially pollenated with Osmia species.

leaf cutting bee 3

Nesting house for Leaf cutting Bees. Photo: US Forest Service, Beatriz Moisset

Leafcutter bees are literally “holed up” nesters.  They make their nests in cylinder cavities, by excavating in rotten wood to soil to straw cavities (rose piths).  A bee house can be made for the garden by drilling bee-sized holes in driftwood.  The nest will occupy several inches of depth with a sawdust or leaf plug at the entrance.  Multiple egg cells are laid in the leaf-lined tunnels, each packed with a larval food supply of pollen and nectar. A single female will lay up to 40 eggs in its two-month life span.

 

Roses seem to be the preferred broadleaf for constructing nests, however green ash, lilac, Virginia creeper, azaleas, redbud, crepe myrtle bougainvillea and other plants with smooth thin leaves are also used by leaf-cutting bees.

 

If the leaf-cutting is a problem, the recommended control is to simply lay cover cloth over your prize ornamentals.  Normally, the leaf damage is minimal, and the value of this important pollinator compensates for its cut-out leaf circles.

 

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Why Keeping a Garden Journal is so Important and, How to Keep it Simple

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Why Keeping a Garden Journal is so Important and,     How to Keep it Simple

By: Emily Shirley, Adv. Master Gardener

We have mentioned the idea of keeping a garden journal and all the advantages of doing so, but we continue to get comments on why people don’t seem to be able to do this, as well as questions about how to organize. Some say they have good intentions and they start, but for several reasons, they don’t keep it up.   It is a good conversation to have, so here we go.

Let’s start with the basics. What is a garden journal? It is a written record of your garden and your garden-related activities. And by “written” we mean hand-written, typed on a computer, and maybe includes things you may want to attach, such as attaching receipts from the store or copies of your seed packets. You can keep your garden journal contents in any notebook, on note cards organized into a file or a combination of a folder with attachments and information entered into a computer journal. A ring binder works best because it allows you to insert sheets of graph paper, calendar pages, pockets for your seed packets and plant tags, and pages for your photographs. Keeping a garden journal gives you a written record of your garden plans, successes and failures.

Sometimes future “plans” become dreams that have to “bake” in my head until at some point they become a reality. The garden journal is a place for me to jot down what I think I may want to do at some point in the future with some small plot for a new garden area. I can continue to think about this area and change things around until I feel that it is ready to be done. (My Garden Journal has a section for “New Plans” and we can talk about that more as we talk about how to set up and divide your journal.)

For vegetable gardeners, an important function of the journal is keeping track of crop rotation. I name the different garden areas on my property so I know what I am referring to when I make note of what is planted where at various times.   We know that planting the same crop in the same location each time you plant depletes the soil and encourages pests and diseases. Many vegetables should be planted on a 3- to 5-year rotation schedule. This is where the sketch of your garden areas, with the names of each area, comes in handy.

A Gardener Rabbit Hole

So let’s get off subject just a minute and go down a gardeners “rabbit hole”. Because crop rotation is so important and is one of the most important reasons you will want to keep a garden journal, let’s talk about crop rotation and the different plant families just a bit more before moving on to the subject at hand.

Different vegetables belong to different families, and different botanical families have different nutritional needs and have different issues.

We learned in our Master Gardener classes about these different plant families:

Solanaceae – The nightshade family is the most commonly represented group in most home gardens. These include tomatoes, peppers, eggplants, and potatoes (not sweet potatoes). There are common fungi that build in the soil when nightshades are planted in the same spot year after year.

Cucurbitaceae – Vining plants produce their fruit on a long vine with seeds running through the center of the fruit and most are protected by a hard rind. Cucumbers, zucchini, summer and winter squash, pumpkins, melons and gourds are included in this family.

Fabaceae – This is the large family of legumes. These are our nitrogen fixers. Peas, beans, peanuts and cowpeas are common vegetables in the legume family.   Gardeners who use clover or alfalfa as cover crops in the winter need to rotate them along with other members of the Fabaceae family, since they are also legumes and susceptible to the same diseases.

Brassicacae – Also known as the cole crops are members of the mustard family and are used by many gardeners to extend their growing season. Frost sometimes improves the flavor of these crops. Broccoli, cauliflower, cabbage, kale, Brussels sprouts, radishes, turnips and collard greens are mustards grown in home gardens.

Liliaceae – Members of the onion family require rotation just like other families. These include onions, garlic, chives, shallots or asparagus. Asparagus must be life in place for several years.   Also, when selecting a site for your asparagus bed, make sure that no other family members have been grown nearby for several years.

Lamiaceae – These are not really vegetables but are members of the mint family. These include mints, basil, rosemary, thyme, oregano, and sage. These are sometimes inter-planted with vegetables to deter pests.

We are still talking about crop rotation here so stick with me for a minute. When you grow plants from the same family in the same place year after year, they leach away specific nutrients that they need. Eventually, the area will be depleted of the nutrients that particular family of plants need.

Vegetables in the same botanical family will also be susceptible to the same pets and diseases. If you plant the same families in the same spot year after year it is like hanging a sign up for certain pests and diseases. You want to keep them on the run and confused. You will do that with crop rotation.

Some will say, “Wait a minute – this is all too confusing and complicated. I thought gardening was simple.” Well, yes it is simple. All you really have to do is make sure that plants from the same family do not get planted in the same spot for more than three years in a row. If there is a particular pest or disease in one area of the garden, don’t plant the affected botanical families there for at least two years. For example, if you had problems with your tomatoes last year, do not plant tomatoes, peppers or eggplant in that area for at least two years. It is simple but you do have to remember a few things.   This is where the Garden Journal comes in handy.

Every year, before you plant your garden, refer to your journal and make a note of where plants were planted last year and how they performed. If they performed poorly, rotate that family to a different area of the garden.     This will greatly increase the yield of your crop.

Okay, that is the end of the gardeners “rabbit hole” so let’s get back to focusing on the Garden Journal.

There are not a lot of complicated rules that someone else has made up that you need to follow when it comes to keeping a Garden Journal. Keep it simple and try to find time to record something every day or so, and record the important things as soon as possible so you do not forget. Make it your own and make it something that is useful to you.

At a minimum you may want to include:

  • An initial sketch of your garden layout.   (Again, name each different garden area for reference.)
  • Pictures of your garden areas
  • A list of plants you know you will plant each year because these are the plants you know you and your family like. You will want to note plant times for each of these.   You can also make notes to remind you of things. For example: “I plant my Irish potatoes by Valentine’s Day each year.”
  • Any research papers on these plants. (This will be a one-page “cheat-sheet” where you have looked up things about this particular plant such as plant times, fertilizer requirements, watering requirements, etc.
  • A list of plants you would like to try and your research about these plants. (Their growing requirements, when you would plant them, etc.)
  • Resources. (Including favorite seed catalogs, web sites that you typically refer to, etc.) This is a good place to list local businesses that carry the things you typically need each growing season. (For example: “O’Neal Feeder Supply carries the onions I plant each year. I get my strawberry plants and sweet potato slips from Country Gardens.”)
  • Reminders. (For example. “Remember to call Country Gardens around May 15th and tell them how many sweet potato slips I need this year.”
  • Expenses and receipts.
  • Calendar (It is handy to just purchase a refill of the type calendar that fits into a ring binder so you can just make entries each day.
  • Dates to remember. Keep a list of these and then at the beginning of the year, go to your daily calendar and note a reminder to yourself – such as when to divide perennials.

Description of an ideal Garden Journal:

  • A three-ring binder that is three inches thick
    • Sheet protectors
    • Large envelopes with holes punched in order to put in the binder
    • A three-ring calendar refill to make daily entries
  • A designated “In-Box” to drop things into until you have time to put them in the binder.
    • A set of dividers with tabs.   Tabs will include:
    • Calendar (goes as the first thing in the journal because you will open up to it almost daily.)
    • Garden Layout – layout of your garden areas (with the names of each area noted.)
    • My plants – list of plants you typically plant each year, with a note of when you typically plant each of these.
    • Plant Research – file your research paper here.
    • Resources – Behind this tab is a sheet that lists all your resources, including people and telephone numbers. Sometimes you need to call others for help. You can include a “Reminders” page in the resource section.
    • Dates to remember
    • Future Plants – list of plants you will try at some future date.
    • Garden Design Ideas – Put sheet protectors behind this tab to hold pictures of design ideas that you cut out from magazines, etc.
    • Expenses & Receipts (put a sheet protector or envelope behind this tab to hold things in as you get them.)
    • Pictures – you may need sheet protectors to hold pictures if you do not just print them out on regular paper.
    • Equipment — If you have a lot of gardening equipment, you may want to include a tab on garden equipment, or make a separate binder for information on your equipment. (For example: I have three tractors, a weed-eater and a mower.) I need to keep up with when everything is serviced and making a note in my garden journal, and then transferring that to a permanent “equipment’ journal is easy since I am making entries in the garden journal daily.)

 

Keeping a garden journal is fun and fulfilling.   It is something “garden related” that gives you something to do on those rainy days when you cannot get out in the garden. Start by having a designated gardening “in-box” where you drop things such as receipts, articles, research papers, seed packets and plant tags. Keeping a Garden Journal is THE way to learn from your successes and mistakes and improve your gardening skills. And, you don’t have to remember a thing – it is all there in your Garden Journal (binder)!

 

 
Each of us has an opportunity to support a healthier, sustainable food system through the choices we make every day.
 
 

 

Basil helps tomatoes to overcome insects and disease, also improving growth and flavor. Since it is a small plant, one to two feet tall, grow it parallel to tomatoes rather than among them. It repels mosquitoes and flies, and when laid over tomatoes in a serving bowl will deter fruit flies.

 

 

 

 

 

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Rose Galls by George Giltner, Louisiana Master Gardener

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Rose Galls by George Giltner, Louisiana Master Gardener

If you cut inside of plant galls, chances are that you will discover an insect larva.  The bugs have found a unique way to provide a protective habitat and food for the developing larvae.  The exact mechanisms for gall formation are variable, but plant growth chemicals released by  larval salivary secretions cause these distortions.  Some galls are smooth while others are spikes, or fibrous like the mossy rose gall.  Other solid galls are produced by mites, nematodes, bacteria, fungi, and viruses.

Rose gall, Photo by Ohio State Extension

The mossy rose gall is the common golf ball sized growth caused by the 0.2 inch cynipid wasp (Diplolepis rosae).   Chances are that you will never see these small wasps, but you will notice the galls.  Each one of these growths is capable of producing about 30 additional wasps which will be seeking other Moss Roses (Rosa centifolia mucosa), R. rubiginosa,  R.dumalis, and R. rubifolia.  Therefore it is wise to prune off these unsightly growths before they mature.

Most insecticides are not effective in controlling these wasps.  Since the typical infection is usually one to two galls, it is much easier to just prune and destroy the gall.  Make a slightly angled cut about ¼ inch above a bud in pruning.

Birds, especially woodpeckers enjoy feeding on the emerging wasps from the Mossy Rose gall which occurs from May to August.  Mice and other small mammals recover the larvae or pupae from the galls.  Also parasitoid insects are natural predators that attack the galls.

An interesting fact is that nearly all of the cynipid wasps produce asexually.  A bacterium, Wolbackia, causes the infected females to produce only female progeny.  When an antibiotic are used to kill the bacteria, females then produce normal quantities of both males and females.

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